# CNNs

#### The Vocabulary of CNNs

###### What is a convolution?

A convolution is an operation of "convolving" an input matrix (input image) with a filter matrix also called kernel or just filter:

We *slide* the *filter* matrix across the input matrix and sum up all the results:

*convolution operation: (left) input - 5x5 matrix + filter; (right) output - 3x3 feature map*

###### Filter

To understand what's going on in the convolution layer in depth, the idea of a *filter* is crucial:

A filter will normally have a matrix form and will consist of randomly (or certainly) initialized numbers. *One filter* detects *one* specific *pattern*, be it edges, corners, circles, etc. We can have many different filters as well depending on the complexity of shapes we want to detect, as each of these filters will have the task of detecting a particular feature. For example, we can have an edge detector filter, a corner detector filter or a circle detector filter and so on.

One of the key concepts behind CNN is that **filters are parameters that can be learned** over time. So, the model learns to distinguish between diverse shapes in the image as it changes the parameters of its filters in a way that it suites the ideal output.

*Note: sometimes filter is called kernel or convolutional matrix. All these terms can be used interchangeably.*

###### Types of Filters

Normally in CNNs you can always train (learn) your own filter which will suite exactly to your type of task. But you can also choose filters which are predefined. Let's look at a short introduction to some edge detection filters:

##### Sobel Filter

This type of filter is based on gradient calculation. From the original image the filter computes the first order derivatives for x and y axes respectively. As image data is not continuous data, those derivatives we get are only approximations. In order to be able to approximate the derivatives, we use the Sobel filter.

The Sobel filter consists of two filters: one filter detects horizontal edges and the other vertical ones.

detects horizontal edges

detects vertical edges

The "horizontal" filter finds the derivative along the x-axis and the "vertical" filter finds it for the y-axis.

##### Laplace Filter

Another edge detection filter which unlike the Sobel applies only one filter. The core concept of this filter is that it computes second order derivatives in one pass. It basically approximates the Laplace operator (or discrete Laplacian) which is the sum of both second order partial derivatives:

In the sense of the Laplace filter we see an edge as a curve. The gradient along this curve is always pointing in the direction of the normal. A normal is a vector which is always perpendicular to the surface.

Second order derivative filters are noise-sensitive. You should reduce noise in the input image first and then apply the Laplace filter. It is possible to reduce noise by some smoothing filter like, for example, a Gaussian filter . After applying the smoothing filter we can use the Laplace filter. It is also possible to combine the smoothing filter and Laplace filter into a single filter and use it as a whole.

###### Stride

The *step* with which we shift the filter is called stride. This is principally the number of pixels we move the filter across the input matrix. If stride = 1 then we make one step per computation *(e.g. see pic "convolution operation" above)*, if stride = 2, we take two steps. The bigger the steps, the more quicker computation will occur and the smaller the output will be which leads to information loss.

###### Padding

If we look at the picture "convolutional operation" above once more, we'll notice that the output matrix (the output image) we receive at the end is smaller than the input matrix. So if we have a 5x5 input matrix and a 3x3 filter, we'll get a 3x3 output. In general, we can describe this procedure with the following formula:

input size: m x m

filter size: f x f

output size: (m-f+1) x (m-f+1)

**Every time we apply a convolutional operation, the size of the image shrinks.**

In the formula above *1* stays for *bias*.

After applying convolution *without padding* we always get a smaller output image. We also ignore for the most time the pixels situated in the corners of out input image staying centered. This all results in information loss.

But what if we pad the input image with extra pixels? We add pixels around the image, creating a frame around the input image consisting of pixels with the zero value. The padding pixels are normally equal 0.

*Types of padding:*

*Valid*

If we have "valid" padding, we actually apply no padding at all. We'll have a normal output as shown in the formula above: *input size - filter size + bias* .

*Same*

Let's take an example again: we firstly pad a 5x5 input image with zeros and get a 6x6 input image afterwards. Then we apply convolution by shifting the 3x3 filter and we get a 5x5 output matrix which is exactly the size of the input matrix. This type of padding where **the output size is equal to the input size** is called **same padding**.

**calculate padding:**

padding: p = (f-1) / 2

if same padding is applied then the size of the output = size of the input

m+2p-f+1 = m

where m is the input size

*Full*

Let's say the size of our filter is 3x3 (we can shorten it as 3). Then we can pad our input image of the size 6x6 according to the formula: padding = filter size - 1. So we pad our image with the maximum of 2 zeros, in order to get output for each input when performing the convolution. The **output size will be: input size + filter size - 1** .

Let's present our input image as an array of pixel values:

then we *pad* the image with 2 zeros on both sides:

and we get a new input image size: 10x10

Afterwards we apply a filter of the size 3x3 with stride 1:

We get the value **C _{0}** by using the following formula which represents the sliding of the filter across the image:

Let's use this formula:

Now we shift the filter further and apply the formula again:

##### Why Use Convolutions?

Why not just use normal fully connected layers? There are some advantages CNNs give us that fully connected neural networks don't.

**Parameter Sharing**

Imagine that we have a fully connected layer instead of a convolution layer. The total parameters number would explode exponentially. That means, we would have to multiply all the image sizes from all the layers together and get a huge number in the end which would lead to a massively expensive computation.

In case of a convolution layer, the number of parameters is independent of the image size. The number of parameters depends on the filter size only. If we have a filter of size 3x3x3 the number of parameters for every filter will be 3*3*3 = 27. We also add a bias for each filter 27 + 1. If we have 8 filters total, we will get 28*8 = 224 parameters for each layer totally.

While convolving through the input in a convolution layer, the layer parameters are shared. What does it mean? It means that one and the same filter is convolved over the whole input. Why is it useful? A filter helpful in one image part, might be helpful in a different image part as well for detecting certain features.

** Sparsity of Connections **

Every layer in a convolutional network has sparse connections. That means, every value in the output is determined by a certain small number of inputs. We don't take into account all the inputs at one computational time.

As we could see one of he major advantages of a convolution layer is: it reduces the number of parameters which also helps to speed up the computations in the training phase. Also the sparse connections help us in keeping the neural network size smaller.

** Going deeper **

Mathematically speaking, a convolution is an operation on two functions with the goal to generate another function that shows how the first function is changed influenced by the second.

*In mathematics* convolution is called *cross-correlation*. It's basically the same as convolution in a CNN, only with one minor detail: in cross-correlation the filter (kernel) is flipped over.

A convolutional neural network (CNN) implements a rather extended version of a neural network. Every standard CNN consists of the following layers:

- Convolution Layer
- Activation
- Pooling Layer
- Flatten Layer
- Fully Connected Layer
- Output Fully Connected Layer: application of softmax

Let's analyze each of them in depth.

#### 1. Convolution Layer

One of the main steps in the convolution layer was already mentioned above is the convolution operation. Just to recap it: we randomly initialize some filters to determine patterns and take our initial input image. Then we convolve the input image with the initialized filter (or filters) by shifting the filter over the entire image and multiplying each value from the original image with the values from the filter, then summing everything up we get one value which is a new entry in the new output matrix.

This new output matrix is the result of convolving the input image with the filter. This matrix is called a **feature map**. For each shape, we want to detect with the filter, we receive a unique feature map. We then can pass this feature map output to the next layer.

Suppose we have the following **input matrix**:

and the following **filter** (=kernel):

The **convolution operation** would look like this:

*left: input matrix + filter; right: output 3x3 feature map*

Take a look at a CNN model function which demonstrates a convolution operation implementation in tensorflow:

```
import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow import keras
```**def** cnn_1():
input = tf.keras.layers.Input(shape=(28, 28, 1))
conv1 = tf.keras.layers.**Conv2D**(filters=8, kernel_size=5, strides=1, padding='same',
activation='relu', use_bias=True)(input)
conv2 = tf.keras.layers.**Conv2D**(filters=8, kernel_size=3, strides=1, padding='same',
activation='relu', use_bias=True)(conv1)
hidden = tf.keras.layers.Flatten()(conv2)
output = tf.keras.layers.Dense(10)(hidden) # our fully connected layer
# softmax will be done by setting 'from_logits' as True in 'train' function (see further code below)
model = tf.keras.Model(inputs=input, outputs=output)
**return** model

You might have noticed that we're using the **2D convolution** ( *tf.keras.layers. Conv2D* ). That means, the filter is moved in 2 dimensions - across the x- and y-axes. In a 3D convolution for example the 3rd dimension denotes the depth, so the filter is moved across the "depth-dimension" too. Then we have x-,y- and z-axes accordingly.

#### 2. Activation

After applying convolution, we activate the output of the convolution layer with an activation function. For a CNN architecture ReLu is often used.

Read more on activation functions here.

We can either choose an activation in the parameter specification list of a convolutional layer (when working with *tf.keras.layers* see the code above) or we implement it as a separate layer (when working with a *Sequential* model from *keras.models*):

**def** cnn_2():
model = Sequential()
model.add(Conv2D(kernel_size=(5,5), out_channels=8, stride=1, padding='SAME', activation="relu"))
model.add(Conv2D(kernel_size=(3,3), out_channels=8, stride=1, padding='SAME', activation="relu"))
model.add(Flatten())
model.add(Dense(6272))
model.add(**Activation**('**relu**'))
model.add(Dense(10))
model.add(**Activation**('**softmax**'))
**return** model

#### 3. Pooling

Pooling is useful in cases we want to *downsample the input image*. We basically want to **reduce the size of the image** to reduce the number of parameters and hence to speed up computation.

In most cases we apply the so called ** MaxPooling **.

With MaxPooling we choose the maximum value from the "window" we apply on the feature map (the output of the convolution layer). Let's say we have a 4x4 feature map and we apply a MaxPooling filter of size 2x2 and the stride 2 on it. Then we get:

Let's extend our **cnn_1 model** with pooling layers:

` `**def** cnn_1_with_pooling():
input = tf.keras.layers.Input(shape=(28, 28,1))
conv1 = tf.keras.layers.Conv2D(filters=8, kernel_size=5, strides=1, padding='same',
activation='relu', use_bias=True)(input)
pool1 = tf.keras.layers.**MaxPool2D**(pool_size=2, strides=2, padding = 'same')(conv1)
conv2 = tf.keras.layers.Conv2D(filters=8, kernel_size=3, strides=1, padding='same',
activation='relu', use_bias=True)(pool1)
pool2 = tf.keras.layers.**MaxPool2D**(pool_size=2, strides=2, padding = 'same')(conv2)
hidden = tf.keras.layers.Flatten()(pool2)
output = tf.keras.layers.Dense(10)(hidden)
model = tf.keras.Model(inputs=input, outputs=output)
**return** model

But there is also another pooling type called **Average Pooling**, where the average of the values in the "filter-window" is selected.

In Keras code an AveragePooling layer looks like this:

`tf.keras.layers.`**AveragePooling2D**

We can repeat the * Convolution + Activation + Pooling * part as long as we want.

#### 4. Flattening

In the very end we **flatten the output** of the previous convolution which means we lay all levels of our multi layered image down in **one single vector**. We then pass this vector to the first fully connected layer. After that we pass the output of the first fully connected layer to the final output fully connected layer. We can apply multiple fully connected layers. Normally we use one or two of them.

* flattening example *

#### 5. Fully Connected Layer

In the fully connected layer the network looks at the output from the previous layer which is our feature map - the result of a convolution operation. Then it looks at the number of classes we want to predict for an initial image. Then a fully connected layer tires to determine what high level features correlates with what class.

The input to a fully connected layer must be flattened, otherwise the layer won't be able to process a multi layered input. The first fully connected layer assigns necessary weights to predict labels for each input.

The fully connected output layer gives final probability for each label with the help of the softmax function.

Don't forget that we need an optimizer and a loss function for the training phase of our model. Let's combine those parameters into one function called *train*:

**def** train(x, y, model, epochs=5, batch_size=128):
model.compile(
optimizer = tf.keras.optimizers.RMSprop(),
metrics = ['accuracy'],
loss = tf.keras.losses.SparseCategoricalCrossentropy(from_logits=True) # 'from_logits=True' allows us to get rid of softmax in the output)
fitting = model.fit(x, y, batch_size=batch_size, epochs=epochs, validation_split=0.2) # loss and metric (accuracy) will also be evaluated on validation data (not trained on)
**return** fitting

#### CNNs' Parameters

Let's mention parameters of a CNN one more time:

The total parameters' number in a single layer is the *number of values we can learn* for each filter. More parameters means more computational time will be needed. The general formula for parameter calculation is the following:

**number of parameters = (filter width * filter height + bias) * number of filters **

#### CNN for text?

We previously said that CNNs are primarily used for image classification and object recognition. But what if we apply CNN to a text? It turns out, there are some tasks in NLP we can successfully apply CNNs to.

Generally speaking, if the **global understanding** across the entire sequence **is required** and **the length** of the sequence is also **important**, you'd **better** use an **RNN** architecture (specifically LSTM) instead of CNNs.

But in what cases we might use a CNN architecture to do language processing? As we learned because of the convolution layer CNN tries to detect patterns. Patterns in the case of a text might be just some n-grams (bi-grams, three-grams, etc...) as "I love", "I hate", "I admire", "very nice", etc. CNN can also find these patterns independent of their position in the text. So, for example, if you want to perform sentiment analysis or spam detection, where you are only interested in negative patterns or typical spam word detection, you might consider using CNN for these tasks as well.

In sentiment analysis CNN might find the negation pattern, e.g. "not great", "don't like", "poorly produced", etc. If such negations are somewhere in the text and we apply a filter to all the regions of the text, the output of the convolution layer will give us a large number for that region in the text where negations appear. The negation was detected.

When applying the pooling layer after the convolution layer, we will loose information about the precise place in the text where the negation is located. Nevertheless, we still preserve information whether the negative pattern (or some other patterns) appeared in the text or not.

Concluding we can say that in case you want to find patterns that are position independet, you may use CNNs. For cases where you have to consider long term dependencies, use RNNs.

#### Conclusion

There are many different types of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) in the family of neural networks. CNNs are often used in image analysis. Because the parameters of a CNN are shared across the whole network, CNNs are also called space invariant artificial neural networks. CNNs find their application in image recognition/classification, medical image analysis, recommender systems and as we said above in natural language processing.